Corns on the toes are certainly painful. They are as a result of too much pressure on that area of the toes and the epidermis just thickens up to safeguard itself, then becomes so thick that it can be then painful. The causes of that higher pressure are numerous and might be because of a bony deformity, a claw toe or a bunion. A good podiatrist could easily take away a corn, but if the pressure that created the corn is still there, then it's probably going to return. To find the best success long term, the reason behind the corn really needs to be recognized and that reason removed. At times that could require surgery to fix the underlying bone or toe disability. Other times that can necessitate the wearing of padding for pressure off loading over the area. Almost always, a vast improvement in the fit of shoes are the most effective ways to get pressure off an area.
One method to self manage these issues will be to remove the pressure. You can find protective pads which you can use such as the toe foams. These are a soft foam manufactured from polyurethane using a cloth lining. They are available in longer tubes so you or the podiatrist can cut these to the required length to put on the toe to cushion and shield it. Several of the toe foams come with a increased thicker area on one side to get more protection. They have a tendency for use more in the short to medium terms as they are soft, they aren't that tough. When they are helpful and need to be used more in the long term chances are they are going to need to get replaced frequently. Usually go over the options with the podiatrist to see the things they advise as the things they determine to be your best alternatives over the long term.